### Flavio Poletti

Irreducible Perler.

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# Parachuting Perl

I’m probably not the only one in the world to work in an Enterprise-like world. Which basically boils down to little Perl knowledge (at least in the admittedly few Enteprises I got in contact with) and usage of streamline Linux distribution with horribly old Perl versions.

What I’m probably, again, not the only one in the world to do is to just set up my own perl installation for usage by my applications. This makes me comfortable about what I’m going to use, without messing with the system’s perl. After that, of course, there comes the problem of many possible applications living together… so I have to cope with this as well.

One additional problem that might kick-in is when I have to use a different perl version for an application. As an example, I recently discovered Regexp::Grammars is compatible with perl starting from version 5.10, but only if different from 5.18… so what if my environment is 5.18? There might be the need to handle different perl installations too, then.

There are currently a lot of tools that simplify the task of having one’s own perl, keeping a private library for an application, possibly shipping also the modules because there’s no connectivity to the Internet… let’s see one possible workflow.

## The Plan

The plan is very simple:

1. install plenv to address the possibility of multiple Perl versions. It is quite lean and it seems to do its work without getting too much in the way
2. build a private perl through perl-build, which can be installed as a plugin of plenv, so that we can use plenv only
3. install cpanminus (a.k.a. cpanm) to easily handle module installation later. Again, this can be handled as a plugin of plenv, we’ll see how
4. declare the dependencies of our application in the root directory of the application itself, through a cpanfile declaration.
5. use carton to handle the installation of an application-private library of code from the dependencies, so that we will be able to decouple from the shared libraries installed in whatever perl we will use. This allows e.g. to have two different application use two different versions of a library, but leverating on the exact same perl installation. Carton will also help us run our application with the right environment, more on this later.

Should you have your development and deployment environment equal to each other? Yes and no. For example, I already have [perlbrew] installed on my dev machine, and the shift to plenv is something to do with a bit of calm… so as long as I’m sure that I use the same perl version in the two places I should be fine. This means that steps 1..3 above will in general be a pre-requisite on the target deployment machine, while steps 4 and 5 are more on the development machine.

So let’s start!

## Deployment Environment Set-Up

Depending on the target machine you will be using, it might be easy or impossible to actually install your own perl and its modules (especially when compilation is needed). If this is the case, try to see if you can create a compatible environment somewhere else, e.g. in a virtual machine in your computer or online, so that you can be pretty sure that when you copy things over you will be fine.

In the following, then, we will assume that the deployment machine is equipped with all the tools needed to compile and install perl and modules, which e.g. for a Debian release would mean ensuring that package build-essentials is in place, with the addition of a system perl, curl and git. For other enterprise-like distributions like RHEL and SLES there are the applicable package managers, otherwise you will have to roll your own!

Before starting, we have to note that there is absolutely no need to be root here. As a matter of fact, it’s probably better not to be root at all.

### plenv

The installation of plenv is (or can be) as simple as cloning its repository on GitHub. We’ll also take care to install the other tools as suggested by the documentation, that I will blatantly copy here (or so):

cd ~
git clone git://github.com/tokuhirom/plenv.git .plenv


Now it’s time to add ~/.plenv/bin to your PATH environment variable. Where it is stored/set is actually a matter of the system you are in, so your mileage may vary with the suggestion provided in the plenv documentation. Good places to look are:

• ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile or ~/.profile if you’re using bash
• ~/.zshrc if you’re using zsh
• whatever provided by the other shells

You can either edit the place where PATH is set, or add a line like this at the end (file and syntax depend from the shell and considerations above):

echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.plenv/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc


At this point, you can execute the following and have plenv visible in your shell:

exec "$SHELL" -l  Time for initializing plenv now. A sub-command tells you what to add to the file you modified for the PATH variable, just run: plenv init -  and look carefully at the output. For example, I have (more or less) this: export PATH="$HOME/.plenv/shims:${PATH}" export PLENV_SHELL=bash source '$HOME/.plenv/libexec/../completions/plenv.bash'
plenv() {
local command
command="$1" if [ "$#" -gt 0 ]; then
shift
fi

case "$command" in rehash|shell) eval "plenv "sh-$command" "$@"";; *) command plenv "$command" "$@";; esac }  If it’s OK with your policies, then you can proceed in installing those lines like you did for PATH modification above. Actually, what is suggested by the author of plenv is to add this: echo 'eval "$(plenv init -)"' >> ~/.bash_profile


which is less save than installing the lines above. Unless you are going to update plenv in the future (e.g. with git pull at some time) you’re fine, but if you do update you might end up with less secure things happening during that init process that would be executed at every login… the choice is yours to take. My only consideration is that you probably already rely upon work done by complete strangers, and this seems more or less the same situation.

Again, to make the changes happen you have to update your shell:

exec "$SHELL" -l  ### Plugging perl-build in Perl-build is a separate tool from the same author, and is targeted at assisting in the installation of a new perl. Being from the same author, anyway, makes it easy to integrate with plenv, which is what we will do here: git clone git://github.com/tokuhirom/Perl-Build.git \ ~/.plenv/plugins/perl-build  Yes, this is it! ### Your first perl It’s time for some serious compilation now. Make sure you know which perl version you need, and ask plenv to install it (it will use perl-build behind the scenes for the heavy-lifting): plenv install 5.20.1 # use *your* perl version of course!  Wait a few minutes for the installation to complete, then let plenv regenerate the shims: plenv rehash  Now, this is written in the documentation and I respect it, but I wonder whether this step is really necessary and, if it is, why at all. Can’t this be done as the final part of plenv install ...? Maybe it is (looking at the contents of ~/.plenv/shims it appears to be so) and I can’t read the documentation properly, go figure. ### Installing cpanminus Another capability offered by plenv is to install cpanminus. I think most know it today, so I’ll not add anything on it. I don’t really like do to this using plenv though, because especially in deployment machines I prefer to use the fatpacked self-containing version. We already added a couple of directories to the PATH, so we will install it in one of them: # you can do this with wget as well, of course curl -L 'https://github.com/miyagawa/cpanminus/raw/devel/cpanm' \ > ~/.plenv/bin/cpanm chmod a+x ~/.plenv/bin/cpanm  This should Just Work. ### Time to pack… The deployment server is ready at this point. Ok, sort of at least for my taste. First of all there’s a lot of cruft left by plenv after installing perl, so I usually get rid of it: cd ~/.plenv rm -rf build cache  For perl 5.20.1 this saved me some 170+ MB, which are not bad when you eventually have to pack it all for distributing into multiple deployment machines. What I ended up was about 66 MB that shrink down to about 17 MB after bzip2 compression, so it’s perfectly acceptable to have human transfer time (unless your datacenter has shiny gigabit or multi-gigabit networking equipment). Another thing that I like to have around is a script for making the changes to the shell initialization when I will carry the whole package around (because I usually have to). So I save something like this inside ~/.plenv/bin/colonize.sh and provide execution permissions to it: #!/bin/bash # # usually saved as ~/.plenv/bin/colonize.sh # change the target according to what your system has, e.g. # ~/.profile or ~/.bash_profile or ~/.zshrc or... target="$HOME/.bashrc"

if grep '^export PATH=.*/\.plenv/bin' "$target" >/dev/null 2>&1 ; then echo "plenv already set-up in this system" >&2 exit 0 fi cat >>"$target" <<'END'

export PATH="$HOME/.plenv/bin:$PATH"
eval "$(plenv init -)" END At this point we’re really ready to pack (feel free to substitute the j with e.g. a z if your system does not have bzip2 installed): cd ~ tar cvjf myperl.tar.bz2 .plenv  To install it into another (equivalent) deployment machine you just have to transfer the file, unpack and colonize: scp myperl.tar.bz2 "$user"@"$remote":/tmp ssh "$user"@"$remote" \ 'cd ~ && tar xvf /tmp/myperl.tar.bz2 && ./plenv/bin/colonize.sh'  ## Development Environment Set-Up You might have a brand new development machine and follow the steps above to set it up exactly like a deployment one: congratulations! Otherwise, you should at least ensure that when testing in your dev machine you are using the same perl version as you installed in the deployment machines, with similar compilation options (e.g. with or without threads). In the following, we will take the hard way and assume that you don’t have plenv in the development machine. This is what I have today, so whatever I write here wouldn’t be tested if I assumed that plenv is used in the dev machine. It’s now time to concentrate on the application. Assuming it lives in its own directory, with proper version control set up (e.g. git), we have to ensure that non-core modules are properly tracked, and carton will help us out on this. ### Dependencies handling with carton Installing carton should not be a problem. You can do it via cpanm on the perl that you use on the development machine. You declare your dependencies in a cpanfile inside the root of your project, like this: # This is file "cpanfile" requires 'Log::Log4perl::Tiny', '1.2.6'; requires 'Template::Perlish'; requires 'JSON', '2.59';  As you can see, you can either specify the module version - e.g. because you know that the specific version has a particular feature - or not. At this point, carton helps you install these modules in a local directory called local: carton install  The first time you run this it will create the local directory and put all installed modules there. Another important file that is created is cpanfile.snapshot, that records the cpanfile and the results of the installation in a manner that will allow the exact re-creation of the environment created here. At this point git will be complaining about these new files: • you definitely want cpanfile and cpanfile.snapshot to be tracked by git. The first helps you keep track of what you need, the second will allow you to recreate the environment multiple times, and will help anyone that wants to collaborate too. We’ll see how in a moment. • you definitely do not want to track local. At the point where you have the instructions to recreate it with cpanfile.snapshot, it does not make sense to move it around. And, as you probably already guessed, it will probably be difficult to move compiled modules around, unless your development environment matches the deployment one perfectly (or so). Which basically boils down to something like this: echo local/ >> .gitignore git add .gitignore cpanfile cpanfile.snapshot git commit -m 'using carton dependencies handling'  ### Running applications Carton has its own way of helping you start applications with the right environment: carton exec -- program option option option...  It also plays well with plenv, so if you set up a local version of perl with it it will use that. My impression is that it fiddles with PERL5LIB to point towards the local directory that was created. Another approach that does not require you to wrap your application calls via carton - which might get annoying - is to set up usage of the local library directly from your application. You probably already do something like this if you store most of your code inside the lib directory: use FindBin '$Bin';
use lib "$Bin/../lib", "$Bin/../local/lib/perl5";


## Workflow

These are my suggestions for the update of the distributions. In my case, the deployment machines do not have git installed (it was on the first one for installing plenv but it is not a requirement) so I do my deployments with good ol’ tarballs (well, I use deployable but it’s another story).

### Application Deployment Environment

I use this kind of layout:

- application-container
- application -> distro/application-2.0
- distro
- application-1.0
- etc -> ../../etc
- local -> ../../local
- vendor -> ../../vendor
- application-1.2
- etc -> ../../etc
- local -> ../../local
- vendor -> ../../vendor
- application-2.0
- etc -> ../../etc
- local -> ../../local
- vendor -> ../../vendor
- etc
- local
- vendor


There is a higher level container directory that will hold the different releases and also all local data, i.e. data that are specific to the installation in the deployment server. In this example, they will be the etc, local and vendor directories, but there might be more of course.

New packages are deposited and expanded inside the distro, where you can find the different releases in case quick rollback is needed. Installing a new release is as simple as:

• expanding the new tarball inside distro
• create the symbolic links to link back to etc, local and vendor (these might be part of the tarball itself)
• move the application symbolic link to point towards the new release from a previous one.

What’s the vendor directory for then? Most of the times the deployment machines are not connected to the Internet, and so you have to carry the dependencies with you somehow. Carton allows you to create a bundle of these modules like this:

carton bundle


and this will create a vendor sub-directory with all the needed stuff. If you go this route, the suggestion is to put vendor/ too inside .gitignore.

### Deployment Strategy

Before the very first deployment, you will have to create the directory layout described above:

cd /path/to/application/parent
mkdir -p application-container/{distro,etc,local,vendor}


For your application you create a distribution tarball, e.g. application-2.0.tar.bz2, and transfer it into the deployment machine inside application-container/distro. You can begin the installation then:

tar xvf application-2.0.tar.bz2
cd application-2.0
ln -s ../../etc
ln -s ../../local
ln -s ../../vendor


Most the times you will not need to install new dependencies, but sometimes (e.g. the very first time) you will. If this is the case, you can generate the bundle of the dependency files inside the development machine:

carton bundle
tar cvjf dependencies.tar.bz2 vendor


and then transfer this bundle in the deployment machine and install it (we will assume that application-container/distro is going to keep all our packages):

cd /path/to/application-container
tar xvf distro/dependencies.tar.bz2
cd application-container/distro/application-2.0
carton install --deployment --cached


Last step is to activate the release:

cd /path/to/application-container
rm -f application
ln -s distro/application-2.0 application


and restart your application, if applicable.

Congratulations! You’re ready to start using your application!

## Updates

Changed how to call carton exec` to more robust way - thanks Slobodan Miskovic!