### Flavio Poletti

Irreducible Perler.

Email Comics Twitter LinkedIn MetaCPAN Github Stackoverflow Pinterest

# Dibs - YAML Reuse

In our first post about dibs we saw how to use it as a different kind of multistage Dockerfile. While I already prefer it this way (all the &&s quickly annoy me), a lot revolves around reuse.

If you’re a programmer, you probably don’t need to be told why reuse is important. If you’re not, you probably don’t care!

There Is More Than One Way To Reuse It, anyway! In this post we will start from YAML, with more to come in future posts.

## The YAML Way

dibs’s format of election for the configuration file is YAML. In particular, dibs relies upon YAML::XS, which ultimately supports version 1.1 of YAML.

OK, why YAML then? Simply put, it is readable, sufficiently concise, normally easy to use too, and allows describing complex data structures that can contain cross-references around (i.e. a directed graph as opposed to a simpler tree, like JSON).

This is the first space for reuse available, and you are encouraged to leverage it liberally.

## Constants

Let’s start from an example coming from the first post:

actions:
# ...

bundle-base:
- from: alpine 3.6
# ...
- name: save base image for bundle
tags: sample-mojo-alien01-bundlebase:latest

bundle:
- from: sample-mojo-alien01-bundlebase:latest
# ...

# ...

Here, we moved part of the activities from the previous bundle action on to a bundle-base sketch, whose goal is to produce a base image named sample-mojo-alien01-bundlebase:latest. This base image is then used as the starting point in the new bundle sketch.

Fact is, there are a couple of issues with this:

• sample-mojo-alien01-bundlebase:latest is indeed very long to write and proportionally (exponentially?) easy to get wrong
• the time we need to change this name, it must happen in at least two places in the configuration file.

YAML aliases to the rescue then:

actions:
# ...

bundle-base:
- from: alpine 3.6
# ...
- name: save base image for bundle
tags: &bundlebase sample-mojo-alien01-bundlebase:latest

bundle:
- from: *bundlebase
# ...

# ...

At least, now we can be sure of a few things:

• getting an alias wrong will make parsing complain loudly, so we’re protected from typos. This is pretty much what would happen with using constants in a program, instead of magic values;
• changing the name of the base image is now a piece of cake: just do it in one place and you’re all set.

You don’t necessarily have to stop here anyway. dibs’s configuration file is not picky about the keys you use (hopefully this will not bite in the medium-long term), so why not place constants at the beginning?

constants:
- &buildbase  sample-mojo-alien01-buildbase:latest
- &bundlebase sample-mojo-alien01-bundlebase:latest

actions:
# ...

build-base:
# ...
- name: save base image for build
tags: *buildbase

build:
- from: *buildbase
# ...

bundle-base:
# ...
- name: save base image for bundle
tags: *bundlebase

bundle:
- from: *bundlebase
# ...

# ...

All in all, we’re just reusing some programming wisdom in structuring the names of our artifacts.

## Almost Anything, Actually

Nothing stops us from reusing other parts too, which leads us to yet another way to factor user creation out (in addition to what we saw last time):

constants:
- &createuserscript |
#!/bin/sh
set -e
exec >&2
adduser -D -h /app ada
# ...

actions:
# ...

build-base:
- from: alpine 3.6
- pack: {run: *createuserscript}
# ...

bundle-base:
- from: alpine 3.6
- pack: {run: *createuserscript}
# ...

# ...

So, anywhere you see space for factoring things out of the box, just do it!

## Enough YAML’ing

Well, we’re at the end of this post. Release early, release often! Let me know in the comments what’s not clear, or pretty much anything else that makes sense for this article!